Infographic: Components and Side Effects of Krokodil

0

by Sarah Hunter; Monarch High School (Louisville, CO)

Krokodil by SciJourner on Scribd


Creative Commons License
This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial-NoDerivs 3.0 Unported License

Alzheimer’s Disease

0

By Hannah Jenkins; Farnsley Middle School (Louisville, KY)
Teacher: Marsha Buerger

My grandma, Nina Halahan, was diagnosed with Alzheimer’s Disease when she was 50 years old, but she started worsening when she was 65. According to my mom, Erin Jenkins, when she was first diagnosed she was easily confused and could not follow directions. Right now, it is just gradually getting worse.
“Nina’s symptoms are confusion and severe memory loss,” says Jenkins. “She can’t take any of her medication by herself because she will get it wrong. She doesn’t work or drive, and basically watches TV all day. She is not qualified to go to nursing homes. But has seizures a lot, and goes to the hospital often.”
According to Alz.org, the leading voluntary health organization in Alzheimer’s care, support, and research, Alzheimer’s is a disease that causes malfunctions in the brain such as severe memory loss that interferes with daily life. It is very common for older people, especially over the age of 65. If someone gets this disease and is younger than 65, it is known as early onset.
“More than 5 billion Americans have the disease right now”, Lesley Stahl reported on Sunday’s November 30, 2016, 60 Minutes.
Also according to Alz.org, Alzheimer’s disrupts neurotransmitters by interfering with the job they do. It also kills nerve cells and causes tissue to shrink, making the brain smaller. All the functions of the brain are disrupted. The cortex—the outer layer of the brain that is involved with language and information processing—shrivels up. the hippocampus—helps with memory—shrinks severely, and the ventricles—one of the communicating cavities—grows larger.
According to Mayo Clinic, the cognitive changes include memory loss; difficulty with communicating or finding words, reasoning or problem solving; trouble with handling complex tasks, coordination and motor functions; and confusion and disorientation. The psychological changes include personality changes, depression, anxiety, paranoia, agitation, hallucinations, and behavior changes.
Sadly, there is no known cure for Alzheimer’s disease. However, there are several types of medication that can help maintain thinking, memory, and communication skills. Medications such as Donepezil (all stages), Rivastigmine (moderate stage), Nazmaric (moderate stage), and Galantamine (moderate stage). But for some people the medication is not effective, or it only lasts for a certain time. Nina cannot use any of these medications at this time because her case is so severe that they will not work.
I have also realized that this is not only hard for my grandma, but it is also hard for my mother. She, my aunt, and Nina’s neighbor work very hard to help her. “We try our best to be as helpful as possible, mostly by taking turns getting her groceries or spending the night with her at her hospital,” says Jenkins.

Creative Commons License
This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial-NoDerivs 3.0 Unported License

Infographic: Jumping on the Trampoline

0

by Grace Truesdale; Fairview High School (Boulder, CO)

Trampolines by SciJourner on Scribd


Creative Commons License
This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial-NoDerivs 3.0 Unported License

Indoor Air Pollution

0

By Kristy Nguyen and Abigail Montgomery; Farnsley Middle School (Louisville, KY)

Bromeliads, which include the pineapple, may prove to be a good way to improve indoor air.
Bromeliads, which include the pineapple, may prove to be a good way to improve indoor air.

Teacher: Marsha Buerger
Most people can agree that outdoor air pollution is a major concern. It can affect your health and make it harder to breathe. However, what most people don’t know is that indoor air pollution can be worse than outdoor air pollution.
According to the U.S Environmental Protection Agency (EPA), “Indoor air pollution is 2-to-5 times worse than outdoor air pollution.”
The World Health Organization (WHO) agrees, reporting that “almost 3% of the global burden of disease is due to indoor air pollution.”
According to the EPA, “In the last several years, a growing body of science evidence indicated that the air within homes and other buildings can be more seriously polluted than the outdoor air.”
Also according to the EPA, sources of indoor air pollution include gases such as radon and carbon monoxide. Radon comes from the natural breakdown of uranium in soil, rock, and water. Carbon monoxide is an odorless and colorless gas that can be produced by cigarette smoke or when fossil fuels are burned. Many household products like detergents, paints, and stain removers release chemicals called Volatile Organic Compounds (VOCs) that may be harmful to human health and can also cause indoor air pollution to become worse.
According to the National Institute of Environmental Health Sciences (NIEHS), exposure to VOCs can cause modest reductions in lung function, which affects people with asthma and emphysema.
According to the EPA, VOCs are chemicals that have a high vapor pressure at ordinary room temperature and are known to cause indoor air pollution. They have a low boiling point, which can cause a lot of molecules to evaporate or sublimate, which means to change directly into vapor when heated. This typically causes the VOC to change from a solid or liquid form to the surrounding air, a trait known as volatility. An example of a VOC is formaldehyde, which evaporates from paint and has a boiling point of -19 ºC. They also state that “Inhaling large amounts of VOCs can cause sick building syndrome which can reduce productivity, create dizziness, and worsen asthma and allergies.”
Plants however, can help to reduce indoor air pollution. A study done by Vadoud Niri, Ph.D., an analytical chemist at the State University of New York, in 2016, and presented at the American Chemical Society, shows that Bromeliads have the best results for removing VOCS from the air.
The Bromeliad is a type of plant that grows in the tropics and is a part of the Bromeliaceae family.
The study was conducted using five common house plants—Caribbean tree cactus, Dracaena, Jade plant, Spider plant, and a Bromeliad—and measuring eight different VOCS. All the experiments included the VOCs acetone, benzene, and formaldehyde.
According to the CDC, acetone can cause dizziness, allergic reactions, and even asthma when inhaled. Benzene can be harmful to the reproductive organs, and formaldehyde can cause asthma-like symptoms to children when exposed.
The Bromeliad absorbed six out of the eight VOCs, and preformed the best and the fastest compared to other household plants. The Bromeliad could absorb over 80% of 6 VOCs.
In a survey of 7th grade students at Farnsley Middle School, 98 out of 100 students said that they didn’t know the difference between indoor and outdoor air pollution, or that indoor air pollution can affect people with asthma and emphysema more than normal people.
Creative Commons License
This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial-NoDerivs 3.0 Unported License

Carpal Tunnel Syndrome

0
Lots of typing runs the risk of carpal tunnel syndrome, and it hurts. Credit: Front Page Science.
Lots of typing runs the risk of carpal tunnel syndrome, and it hurts. Credit: Front Page Science.

by Dallas Adams and Chase Kessel; Farnsley Middle School (Louisville, KY)
Teacher: Marsha Buerger
“My hands hurt.”
In 1997, Jody Kessel was diagnosed with Carpal Tunnel Syndrome. Chase (co-author) started noticing that his aunt’s hands would start moving in a weird way at times.
Kessel no longer has a typing job because of her condition. “I was very sad when I lost my job, and it has affected my life in many ways,” she stated.
According to the Mayo Clinic, carpal tunnel syndrome is a hand and arm condition that causes numbness. It is caused by a pinched nerve in your wrist that occurs when too much pressure is applied to a nerve. Tissues, such as bones, muscles or tendons, surround the nerve and the pressure disrupts the nerve’s function, which then causes pain, tingling and weakness.
According to The National Institute of Neurological Disorder (NIND), carpal tunnel syndrome has been associated with certain tasks including, repetitive hand motions, awkward hand motions, strong gripping, mechanical stress on the palm, and vibration. The jobs that most often show signs of carpal tunnel syndrome are cashiers, hairdressers, knitters, or sewers. Other jobs that could show signs of the syndrome include mechanic, gardener, painter, homemaker, and janitor.
According to the Mayo Clinic, symptoms usually develop over time, with frequent burning, tingling, itching, or numbness in the palm of the hand and fingers—especially the thumb, the index, and middle fingers. Some people with carpal tunnel syndrome say their fingers feel useless and swollen, even though little or no swelling happens. The symptoms often will start in either one or both of the hands during the night. A person with carpal tunnel syndrome may wake up feeling the need to shake their hand or wrist. As symptoms worsen, people might feel tingling during the day.
Kessel’s symptoms developed over time. She first noticed burning and tingling and then her fingers began to hurt a lot more. Kessel states, “My fingers did hurt very badly but I was able to still move them.”
According to Mayo Clinic, treatments can range from rest and ice to cortisone injections or surgery. If you don’t catch carpal tunnel syndrome in the early stages, it will start to get worse over time and can require surgery or other treatments. If you do catch it in the early stages, you can help treat it with some rest or some cold ice on the nerve. Stretching is also another way to treat carpal tunnel syndrome while you are at home.
According to Honor Society of Nursing, carpal tunnel syndrome is not life threatening, but it can affect your daily life. Carpal tunnel syndrome can be debilitating, however with treatment it may be easier to deal with. Since Kessel has had it since 1997, she has been suffering for a very long time.
Kessel is doing much better today and she is learning how to handle having carpal tunnel syndrome. She has been treating it with a wrist support, ice, and rest. If it continues to get worse though, she may have to get surgery.
“It is hard living with Carpal Tunnel Syndrome, but I have gotten used to it.” Kessel is currently working again, but still has to manage the pain she feels with increased activity.

Creative Commons License
This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial-NoDerivs 3.0 Unported License

Infographic: The Physics behind Acrobatics

0

by Grace Wade-Stein; Monarch High School (Louisville, CO)

Acrobatics Infographic V2 by SciJourner on Scribd


Creative Commons License
This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial-NoDerivs 3.0 Unported License

Infographic: Heart Disease within Families

0

by Grace Thompson; St. Joseph’s Academy (St. Louis, MO)

Heart Disease by SciJourner on Scribd


Creative Commons License
This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial-NoDerivs 3.0 Unported License

Infographic: Calming Benefits of the Ocean

0

by Dani Neece; St. Joseph’s Academy (St. Louis, MO)

Calm Ocean by SciJourner on Scribd


Creative Commons License
This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial-NoDerivs 3.0 Unported License

Infographic: Chemical Warfare

0

by Rigpi Satho;Monarch High School (Louisville, CO)

Chemical Warfare #2 by SciJourner on Scribd


Creative Commons License
This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial-NoDerivs 3.0 Unported License

Infographic: Dead Zones

0

Anna Hill; St. Joseph’s Academy (St. Louis, MO)

Dead Zones by SciJourner on Scribd


Creative Commons License
This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial-NoDerivs 3.0 Unported License